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Alphabet A Through Z

A B C D E F G H I J K L M #
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
M
m: Abbreviation for meter. 39.37".
M: Abbreviation for mega. One million or 106.
mA: Abbreviation for milliamp. One thousandth of an Amp or 10-3 Amps.
MAC: Abbreviation for multiplexed analog components. A video standard developed by the European community. An enhanced version, HD-MAC delivers 1250 lines at 50 frames per second, HDTV quality.
Macrobending: In a fiber, large macroscopic deviations of the fiber’s axis from a straight line, that will cause light to leak out of the fiber, causing signal attenuation. Macrobend
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): A network covering an area larger than a local area network. A series of local area networks, usually two or more, that cover a metropolitan area.

 Types of Area Networks

MAP: Abbreviation for manufacturing automation protocol. Computer programs that run manufacturing automation systems.
Margin: Allowance for attenuation in addition to that explicitly accounted for in system design.
Mass Splicing: splicing of many fibers in a cable.
Material Dispersion: Dispersion resulting from the different velocities of each wavelength in a material.

Material Dispersion

MBaud: One million symbols of information per second. Equivalent to 1 Mb/s for binary signals.
Mean Launched Power: The average power for a continuous valid symbol sequence coupled into a fiber.
Mechanical Splice: An optical fiber splice accomplished by fixtures or materials, rather than by thermal fusion. The capillary splice, illustrated, is one example of a mechanical splice.

Mechanical Splice

Medium Access Control (MAC): 1) A service feature or technique used to permit or deny use of the components of a communication system. 2) A technique used to define or restrict the rights of individuals or application programs to obtain data from, or place data onto, a storage device, or the definition derived from that technique.
Mezzanine Compression: Contribution level quality encoded high-definition television signals. Typically split into two levels: high level at 140 Mb/s and low level at 39 Mb/s. For high definition within the studio, 270 Mb/s is being considered.
MFD: See mode field diameter.
MH: Abbreviation for medium-haul. A classification of video performance under RS-250C. Higher performance than long-haul and lower performance than short-haul.
MHz: Abbreviation for megahertz. One million Hertz (cycles per second).
Microbending: Mechanical stress on a fiber that introduces local discontinuities,  which results in light leaking from the core to the cladding by a process called mode coupling. Microbend
Microwave Dish: A parabolic shaped antenna used for high-frequency RF signals.
Micrometer: One millionth of a meter or 10-6 meters. Abbreviated m.
Microsecond: One millionth of a second or 10-6 seconds. Abbreviated s.
Microwatt: One millionth of a Watt or 10-6 Watts. Abbreviated W.
Microwave Transmission: Communication systems using very high-frequency RF to carry the signal information.
MIL-SPEC: Abbreviation for military specification. Performance specifications issued by the Department of Defense.
MIL-STD: Abbreviation for military standard. Standards issued by the Department of Defense.
Minimum Bend Radius: The smallest radius an optical fiber or fiber cable can bend before increased attenuation or breakage occurs.
Misalignment Loss: The loss of power resulting from angular misalignment, lateral displacement, and fiber end separation.
MLM: See multilongitudinal mode laser.
mm: Abbreviation for millimeter. One thousandth of a meter or 10-3 meters.
MM: See multimode.
Modal Dispersion: See multimode dispersion.
Modal Noise: Noise that occurs whenever the optical power propagates through mode-selective devices. It is usually only a factor with laser light sources.
Mode: A single electromagnetic wave traveling in a fiber.
Mode Coupling: The transfer of energy between modes. In a fiber, mode coupling occurs until equilibrium mode distribution (EMD) is reached.
Mode Evolution: The dynamic process a multilongitudinal mode laser undergoes whereby the changing distribution of power among the modes creates a continuously changing envelope of the laser's spectrum.
Mode Field Diameter (MFD): A measure of distribution of optical power intensity across the end face of a single-mode fiber. See also effective area. Mode Field Diameter
Mode Filter: A device that removes higher-order modes to simulate equilibrium mode distribution. A mode filter is most easily constructed  Mode Filter
Modem: Acronym for modulator/demodulator. 1) In general, a device that both modulates and demodulates signals. 2) In computer communications, a device used for converting digital signals into, and recovering them from, quasi-analog signals suitable for transmission over analog communications channels such as telephone lines.
Mode Scrambler: A device that mixes modes to uniform power distribution.

Mode Scrambler

Mode Stripper: A device that removes cladding modes.

Mode Stripper

Modulation: The process by which the characteristic of one wave (the carrier) modifies another wave (the signal). Examples include amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), and pulse-coded modulation (PCM).

Modulation Index: In an intensity-based system, the modulation index is a measure of how much the modulation signal affects the light output. It is defined as follows:

Modulation Depth Equation

Modulator: A device that imposes a signal on a carrier.
Monitor:1) a CRT that receives its signal directly from a VCR, camera, or separate TV tuner for high-quality picture reproduction. 2) A device used for the real-time temporary display of computer output data. 3) Software or hardware that is used to scrutinize and to display, record, supervise, control, or verify the operations of a system. Computer Monitor
Monochrome: Black and white TV signal.
Moore’s Law: A prediction for the rate of development of modern electronics. It states that the density of information storable in silicon roughly doubles every year. Or, the number of transistors on a chip will double every eighteen months, with proportional decreases in cost and increases in performance. For more than two decades this prediction has held true. Named after Gordon E. Moore, physicist, cofounder and chairman emeritus of Intel Corporation.
Most Significant Bit: In a binary code, the bit or bit position that is assigned to, or represents, the largest quantity or increment that the code can represent.
MPEG: Abbreviation for motion picture experts group. An international standard for compressing video that provides for high compression ratios. The standard has two recommendations: MPEG-1 compresses lower-resolution images for videoconferencing and lower-quality desktop video applications and transmits at around 1.5 Mb/s. MPEG-2 was devised primarily for delivering compressed television for home entertainment and is used at CCIR resolution when bit rates exceed 5.0 Mb/s as in hard disk-based applications.
MQW: See multi-quantum well laser.
ms: Abbreviation for milliseconds. One thousandth of a second or 10-3 seconds.
MSO: Abbreviation for multiple service operator. A telecommunications company that offers more than one service, e.g. telephone service, Internet access, satellite service, etc.
MTBF: Abbreviation for mean time between failure. Time after which 50% of the units of interest will have failed. Also called MTTF (mean time to failure).
Multilongitudinal Mode (MLM) Laser : An injection laser diode which has a number of longitudinal modes. Graph of MLM Showing Spectral Width
Multimode Dispersion: Dispersion resulting from the different transit lengths of different propagating modes in a multimode optical fiber. Also called modal dispersion.
Multimode (MM) Fiber: An optical fiber that has a core large enough to propagate more than one mode of light The typical diameter is 62.5 micrometers. Multimode Graded-index Fiber
Multimode Laser Diode (MMLD): Synonym for multilongitudinal mode laser.
Multiple Reflection Noise (MRN): The fiber optic receiver noise resulting from the interference of delayed signals from two or more reflection points in a fiber optic span. Also known as multipath interference.
Multiplexer: A device that combines two or more signals into one output. Multiplexer
Multiplexing: The process by which two or more signals are transmitted over a single communications channel. Examples include time-division multiplexing (TDM) and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM).
Multi-quantum Well (MQW) Laser: A laser structure with a very thin (about 10 nm thick) layer of bulk semiconductor material sandwiched between the two barrier regions of a higher bandgap material. This restricts the motion of the electrons and holes and forces energies for motion to be quantized and only occur at discrete energies.
MUSE: Abbreviation for multiple sub-Nyquist encoder. A high-definition standard developed in Europe that delivers 1125 lines at 60 frames per second.
mV: Abbreviation for millivolt. One thousandth of a Volt or 10-3 Volts.
mW: Abbreviation for milliwatt. One thousandth of a Watt or 10-3 Watts.
MZ: Abbreviation for Mach-Zehnder, a structure used in fiber Bragg gratings and interferometers. Named for the two men who developed the underlying principles of the structure.

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